The vast frozen landmass surrounding the South Pole is a difficult but interesting place to explore.

The massive frozen landmass at the planet’s core is more than just beautiful icing on the cake. It may also be necessary for our survival.

The ice in Antarctica deflects some of the sun’s rays away from the Earth, allowing for livable temperatures.

While complete melting of the vast Antarctic ice sheets is unlikely, even small-scale melting will lift global sea levels.

Flooding occurs all over the world as a result of this.

The oceans surrounding the continent are home to a diverse range…


  • The age-old class structure of India is liable for the origination of the reservation system within the country.
  • In simple terms, it’s about facilitating access to seats within the government jobs, educational institutions, and even legislatures to certain sections of the population.
  • These sections have faced historical injustice thanks to their caste identity.
  • As a quota-based social action, the reservation also can be seen as positive discrimination.
  • In India, it’s governed by government policies backed by the Indian Constitution.

Historical Background

  • William Hunter and Jyotirao Phule in 1882 originally conceived the thought of the caste-based reservation system.
  • The reservation system that exists…

What is society?

As per sociologists, a society is often defined as a gaggle of individuals who have interactions within a standard territory, and share an identical culture. We will now breakdown the keywords — group, territory, interaction and culture for better understanding.

Social Group

It is the approaching together of two or more people that interact and further identify with each other.


Every Country owns formal boundaries and territory (areas) that the planet recognizes as belonging to the respective country. But, a society’s boundaries don’t necessarily need to be only geopolitical borders.


The members of any society…

Education and health care are some basic human rights to which all human beings are entitled to. The Supreme Court has from time to time interpreted Article 21 of the Constitution and has brought ‘Right to health’ and ‘right to primary education’ (Article 21A) under fundamental rights. Therefore, both primary education and health care is an important aspect of a democratic setup.

Prof. Amartya Sen has lamented about the primary education and health care situation in India and advocated for reforms. According to him:

  • Without developing social sectors like school education and basic health-care services, and without carrying outland reforms…

The “English Trading Company” was formed by a group of merchants known as the ‘Merchant Adventures’ in 1599 AD. This company was granted a charter by Queen Elizabeth I on 31" Dec. 1600 AD. ‘

The Governor and the Company of Merchants of London trading into East Indies’ was the name of English company. This company was given monopoly rights over eastern trade for fifteen years.

In 1608 AD Captain William Hawkins reached the court of Jahangir. Hawkins was the ambassador of King James I. He lived at the court for three years. He was given the title of English Khan and Mansab of 400 jats by Jahangir But because of Portuguese influence at the court, Hawkins failed to get permission to erect a factory at Surat.

In 1611 Capt. Middleton landed at Swally near Surat despite Portuguese opposition and got permission to trade from the Mughal governor. In 1612 AD Capt. Best defeated the Portuguese at Swally near Surat and this defeat broke their naval…

The Arrival of Portuguese in India

The arrival of Vasco da Gama, a nobleman from the household of the King of Portugal, at the port of Calicut in south-west India on 27 May 1498 inaugurated a new chapter in Indian history. For some time, the Portuguese, among other Europeans, had been trying to find a sea route to India, but that they had been unable to interrupt freed from the stranglehold exercised by Egyptian rulers over the trade between Europe and Asia. The Red Sea trade route was a state monopoly from which Islamic rulers earned tremendous revenues.

By the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas…


India’s economic and cultural relations with Europe return to the age of ancient history. During the center Ages also the trade between Europe and India and South-East Asia was carried on along several routes. The Asian a part of the trade was carried on mostly by Arab merchants and sailors, while the Mediterranean and European part was the virtual monopoly of the Italians. Goods from Asia to Europe skilled many nations and lots of hands before they reached Europe.

Before the Europeans arrived, no enemy had ever invaded India from the ocean. Europeans came slowly initially in search of trade…


On 27″ August regular Pakistani troops crossed the Cease — Fire Line (CFL) but retired after a heavy clash with Indian forces.

  • On the first day of September 1965, Pakistan launched a major offensive. The question was taken up by the Security Council of U.N.O., which passed a resolution asking both India and Pakistan to cease all hostile operations. In obedience to this resolution, there was a cease-fire on both sides on 23″ September and the armies of both India and Pakistan occupied the line which they held on that date. …

National Crime Record Bureau report shows the stark increase in violence against women in India within the sorts of dowry deaths, acts of harassment, torture, rapes and violence.

Violence against Women

The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that leads to, or is probably going to end in, physical, sexual, or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring publicly or private life.” Violence against women may be a social, economic, developmental, legal, educational, right, and health (physical and mental) issue. It is a preventable explanation for morbidity and mortality in women. Violence against women occurs throughout the life cycle from pre-birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood to adulthood.

Facts and Findings

As per the planet Health Organization…

In January 2020, the Union Cabinet has approved amendments to the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971 allowing women to hunt abortions as a part of the reproductive right and gender justice. The amendment has raised the upper limit of MTP from 20 weeks to 24 weeks for ladies including rape survivors, victims of incest, differently-abled women and minors. Abortion is defined because the termination of pregnancy by various methods, including medical surgery before the fetus can sustain independent life.

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